Determinants of a smart city in Morocco

  • Aicha EL ALAOUI University of Sultan My Slimane


Since the beginning of the 21st century, more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. The 2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects notes that the largest urban growth will take place in India, China and Nigeria. In Morocco, population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million was 22.65 in 2015, compared to 13.98 in 1960.This situation has considerable consequences for the social, economic and ecological equilibrium of the territories. For that, public and private strategy must respond to the emerging needs of large numbers of citizens coming into cities to realizea real model of a future citywhichneedto be a Smart City. This new conceptmeans 'briefly' a city must (1) use the New Technologies of Information and Communication (NICT) to improvea quality of its citizens’ life, (2) integrate all its stakeholders (businesses and government) and citizens in decision-making and (3) dispose of as little waste as possible in order to have a neutral ecological footprint. This communication shows that a smart city is the city well managed, with significant opportunities for economic development and access to basic services, including health care and education, for all people.We concluded that smart city is a democratic and ecological city based on a circular economy, highlighting two factors human development and democracy development which may contribute to the instituting a smart city in Morocco.


Attour, A., &Rallet, A. (2014). ''Le rôle des territoires dans le développement des systèmes trans-sectoriels d’innovation locaux : le cas des smartcities''. Innovations, 1(43), 253 279.
Boulton, A., Brunn, S.D., &Devriendt, L. (2011).''Cyberinfrastructures and “smart” world cities: Physical, human, and soft infrastructures''. In Taylor, P., Derudder, B., Hoyler, M., &Witlox, F. (Eds.), International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Available from smart_ world_cities.pdf.
Caragliu, A, Del Bo, C. &Nijkamp, P. (2009). ''Smart cities in Europe''. Series Research Memoranda 0048.
Chourabi, H., Nam, T., Walker, S. Gil-GarciaJ. Ramon., Mellouli, S., Nahon, K., Pardo Theresa A., Scholl H.J., (2012). ''Understanding Smart Cities: An Integrative Framework''. 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 978-0-7695-4525-7/12. IEEE DOI 10.1109/HICSS.2012.615.
Coe, A., Paquet, G., Roy, J. (2001).''E-Governance and Smart Communities: A Social Learning Challenge''. Social Science Computer Review, 19, p. 80-93.
Cohen, B. (2012). ''What Exactly Is A Smart City? ''Co.Exist. 1680538/what-exactly-is-a-smart-city
El Alaoui, A. (2016). "What kind of women’s education that affects economic growth?". The Journal of Quality in Education. N°7, 2016, pp.35-47.
European Parliament, report (2014). ''Mapping Smart Cities in the EU''. Directorate general for internal policies policy department A: Economic and scientific policy. IP/A/ITRE/ST/2013-02. PE 507.480.
Giffinger R. et al (2007). ''Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities'', Vienna, Austria: Centre of Regional Science (SRF), Vienna University of Technology.
Giovannella C. (2013).''Territorial Smartness and Emergent Behaviors in ICSCS''. IEEE publisher, pp. 170-176
Glaeser, E.L. , Berry, C.R. (2006). ''Why Are Smart Places Getting Smarter? ''.Taubman Center Policy Brief 2006 ‐ 2, Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government.
Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., and Williams, P. (2010).''Foundations for Smarter Cities''. In IBM Journal of Research and Development, 54(4), pp1-16.
International Telecommunication Union, ITU, (2016). ''Measuring the Information Society Report''.PP.1-274. 2016/MISR2016-w4.pdf
Lombardi P., Giordano S., Caragliu A., Del Bo C., Deakin M., Nijkamp P., Kourtit K. (2011).''An Advanced Triple-Helix Network Model for SmartCities performance''. Research Memorandum 2011-45.
Nam, T. and Pardo, T.A. (2011). ''Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and Institutions''. The Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, pp. 282- 291. background%20documents/dgo_2011_smartcity.pdf
Smart City and Communities, (2013). ''European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities: Strategic Implementation Plan''. SIP.pdf
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2014).''The World Population Situation in 2014: A Concise Report''. NY, ST/ESA/SER.A/354. Pp.1-38.
Washburn, D. and Sindhu, U. (2010). ''Helping CIOs Understand “Smart City” Initiatives'', for CIOs. Forrester Research, Inc.
How to Cite
EL ALAOUI, Aicha. Determinants of a smart city in Morocco. The Journal of Quality in Education, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 9, aug. 2017. ISSN 2028-1897. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 feb. 2018.